Monday, December 23, 2013

Cytokine profiling in immigrants with clinical malaria after extended periods of interrupted exposure to Plasmodium falciparum


Published at PLoS ONE 

Cytokine profiling in immigrants with clinical malaria after extended periods of interrupted exposure to Plasmodium falciparum

Gemma Moncunill, Alfredo Mayor, Azucena Bardají, Laura Puyol, Augusto Nhabomba, Diana Barrios, Ruth Aguilar, María-Jesús Pinazo, Mercè Almirall, Cristina Soler, José Muñoz, Joaquim Gascón, Carlota Dobaño

Immunity to malaria is believed to wane with time in the absence of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infection, but immunoepidemiological data on longevity of immunity remain controversial. We quantified serum cytokines and chemokines by suspension array technology as potential biomarkers for durability of immunity in immigrants with clinical malaria after years without parasite exposure. These were compared to serum/plasma profiles in naïve adults (travelers) and semi-immune adults under continuous exposure, with malaria, along with immigrant and traveler patients without malaria. Immigrants had higher levels of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-8 compared to semi-immune adults with malaria (P≤0.0200). Time since immigration correlated with increased IL-2 (rho=0.2738 P=0.0495) and IFN-γ (rho=0.3044 P=0.0282). However, immigrants did not show as high IFN-γ concentrations as travelers during a first malaria episode (P<0.0001). Immigrants and travelers with malaria had higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-10 (P<0.0100) than patients with other diseases, and IL-8 and IL-1β were elevated in immigrants with malaria (P<0.0500). Therefore, malaria patients had a characteristic strong pro-inflammatory/Th1 signature. Upon loss of exposure, control of pro-inflammatory responses and tolerance to P. falciparum appeared to be reduced. Understanding the mechanisms to maintain non-pathogenic effector responses is important to develop new malaria control strategies.

Back-to-back publication: High antibody responses against Plasmodium falciparum in immigrants after extended periods of interrupted exposure to malaria

2 comments:

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